My research emphasis has been in the area of behavioral/physiological ecology of marine organisms, with a particular interest in symbiotic associations. These associations represent tremendous potential in demonstrating alternatives to competition as major selective agents. The significance of coevolutionary adaptations by associated organisms is just recently being acknowledged as a major evolutionary force (e.g., endosymbiotic hypothesis for development of eukaryotes). Specifically, I have studied associations involving organisms that live with cnidarians, including dinoflagellates, fishes, hermit crabs, and shrimp. Some past activities include monitoring of coral reef conditions using video transects, and temperature-induced bleaching response of zooxanthellae living in cnidarians. More recent projects involve: 1) behavioral interactions among echinoderms and symbiotic crabs; 2) symbiotic shrimp/sea anemone behavioral interactions, and 3) predator/prey and symbiotic interactions within the Sargassum (pelagic, floating brown alga) community. My research has been extramurally funded.